Why Test


  • Societal change has upset evolutionary human/biome symbiosis, causing:
    • Increased infectious agent susceptibility
    • Disrupted immune function
    • Compromised basic gut health/ nutrition/ antibiotics
  • Human biology is out of kilter with society

Epidemiology of Infectious Diarrhea

  • Significant cause of morbidity and mortality
    • Significant in developing countries
      • Globally, estimated 1.7 billion cases of diarrheal disease every year
      • Major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality around the world, accounting for 1.34 million deaths annually in children younger than 5 years, or roughly 15% of all child deaths.
    • More significant in the young, old, and infirm
  • In the U.S. adults experience 99 million episodes annually
    • 8 million physician visits
    • More than 250,000 hospitalizations
    • Primary risk factor: exposure to children
  • In the U.S., gastrointestinal infections in pediatric patients result in
    • 220,000 hospital admissions
    • 1.5 million outpatient visits
    • 300 deaths in children under 5 annually
    • Cost of around $1Billion
  • 48 million of reported cases epidemiologically associated with food
  • Utilizing current technology, approximately 80% of causes are not identified
  • Burden of infectious diarrhea is underdiagnosed and underreported


Infectious Diarrhea Definitions

  • Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
  • Characterized by abdominal pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever
  • Acute gastroenteritis lasts fewer than 14 days
  • Persistent gastroenteritis last between 14 and 30 days
  • Chronic gastroenteritis lasts more than 30 days
  • Can be infectious, inflammatory, toxigenic

Infectious Diarrhea Pathogenesis

  • Pathogens that make a toxin in the food before it is consumed (Bacillus sp., Staph aureus)
  • Pathogens that make a toxin in the gastrointestinal tract, after the food is ingested (Clostridium perfringens)
  • Pathogens that invade the bowel wall causing inflammatory diarrhea
  • Pathogens that invade the bowel wall and produce toxins
  • Alteration of the gut biome associated with antibiotics and other agents such as chemotherapy

Relevant Diagnostics Empowering Actionable Therapy®